Islamic Management Education as Pivotal Tool to Reduce Inequality of Online Learning During The Covid-19 Pandemic in Indonesian Higher Education


Authors (s)

(1) * Sulistyorini Sulistyorini   (Universitas Islam Negeri Sayyid Ali Rahmatullah)  
(*) Corresponding Author


Online-based education due to the COVID-19 pandemic has created class inequality between students from the lower middle class/poor economic group and students from the upper class/elite financial group. This article aims to fill existing research gaps regarding class inequality during the pandemic, creating gaps in student experience and learning outcomes. The approach is qualitatively collected using observation, interview, and documentation techniques. The results are analyzed, interpreted, and verified on the MaxQDA application. This study's findings are that in its implementation, online education creates inequality related to learning support tools: cell phones and laptops, quotas, and internet networks. Then, family background factors are also the cause of inequality, especially concerning work or income, parents' educational background, and the area where they live. As a result, the disparity in online education impacts student learning outcomes that decline and soar parental spending to meet additional needs to support learning activities. Thus, rapid response from universities is needed to immediately overcome this inequality because the demands for technological education, on the other hand, also create gaps in learning.



Full Text: PDF


Abad-Segura, E., González-Zamar, M. D., de la Rosa, A. L., & Gallardo-Pérez, J. (2020). Management of The Digital Economy In Higher Education: Trends And Future Perspectives. Campus Virtuales, 9(1), 57-68.

Adedoyin, O. B., & Soykan, E. (2020). Covid-19 Pandemic and Online Learning: The Challenges and Opportunities. Interactive Learning Environments, 1-13.

Astuti, R. D., Andayani, A., & Suyitno, S. (2021). Implementation of Learning to Write News Text via the Internet in the COVID-19 Pandemic Era (Case Study in Class VIII MTs N 1 Surakarta). International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding, 8(2), 206-213.

Azubuike, O. B., Adegboye, O., & Quadri, H. (2021). Who Gets To Learn In A Pandemic? Exploring The Digital Divide In Remote Learning During The COVID-19 Pandemic in Nigeria. International Journal of Educational Research Open, 2, 100022.

Azzizah, Y. (2015). Socio-Economic Factors on Indonesia Education Disparity. International Education Studies, 8(12), 218-229.

Berger, T., & Engzell, P. (2020). Trends and Disparities In Subjective Upward Mobility Since 1940. Socius, 6, 2378023120951139.

Brown, P. (2013). Education, Opportunity and The Prospects For Social Mobility. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 34 (5-6), 678-700.

Cabaleiro-Cerviño, G., & Vera, C. (2020). The Impact of Educational Technologies in Higher Education. GIST Education and Learning Research Journal, 20, 155-169.

Carter Jr, R. A., Rice, M. (2020). Self-Regulated Learning In Online Learning Environments: Strategies For Remote Learning. Information and Learning Sciences, 121(5/6), 321-329.

Cho, J., Kwak, N., Choi, S. M., Lee, J., Park, Y. S. (2020). Sleep Duration and Health-Related Quality Of Life in Korean Adults: 2007-2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sleep and Breathing, 24, 725-733.

De Azevedo Vieira, E., Coviello, Á. M. P., & Coelho, T. R. (2020, September). Technological Infrastructure for Remote Classes in Brazilian Public Schools during The COVID-19 Pandemic. In Proceedings of The 13th International Conference On Theory And Practice Of Electronic Governance (Pp.226-229).

Eynon, R., & Malmberg, L. E. (2021). Lifelong Learning And The Internet: Who Benefits Most from Learning Online? British Journal of Educational Technology, 52(2), 569-583.

Ez-Zaouia, M., Tabard, A., & Lavoué, E. (2020). EMODASH: A Dashboard Supporting Retrospective Awareness of Emotions in Online Learning. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 139, 102411.

Fikri, M., Faizah, N., Elian, S. A., Rahmani, R., Ananda, M. Z., & Suryanda, A. (2021). Kendala Dalam Pembelajaran Jarak Jauh Di Masa Pandemi Covid-19: Sebuah Kajian Kritis. Jurnal Education and Development, 9(1), 145-145.

Herwin, J., Senen, A., & Wuryandani, W. (2020). The Evaluation of Learning Services during The Covid-19 Pandemic. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 5926-5933.

Katz, V. S., Jordan, A. B., & Ognyanova, K. (2021). Digital inequality, faculty communication, and remote learning experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic: A survey of US undergraduates. Plos one, 16(2), e0246641.

Ketmuni, M. (2021). The Acceptance of Online English Language Learning of Undergraduate Students at Rajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi. Psychology and Education Journal, 58(1), 1464-1470.

Klochkova, E., Serkina, Y., Prasolov, V., & Movchun, V. (2020). The Digitalisation of the economy and higher education. Space and Culture, India, 7(4), 70-82.

Leathwood, C. (2005). Assessment Policy and Practice in Higher Education: Purpose, Standards and Equity. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 30(3), 307-324.

Liang, S. W., Chen, R. N., Liu, L. L., Li, X. G., Chen, J. B., Tang, S. Y., & Zhao, J. B. (2020). The Psychological Impact of The COVID-19 Epidemic On Guangdong College Students: The Difference Between Seeking And Not Seeking Psychological Help. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 2231.

Lopez-Sintas, J., Lamberti, G., & Sukphan, J. (2020). The Social Structuring of The Digital Gap In A Developing Country. The Impact of Computer and Internet Access Opportunities On Internet Use In Thailand. Technology In Society, 63, 101433.

Lundine, J., Hadikusumah, R. Y., & Sudrajat, T. (2013). Indonesia’s Progress On The 2015 Millennium Development Goals. Strategic Review, 3(3), 54-66.

Mohmmed, A. O., Khidhir, B. A., Nazeer, A., & Vijayan, V. J. (2020). Emergency Remote Teaching during Coronavirus Pandemic: The Current Trend And Future Directive At Middle East College Oman. Innovative Infrastructure Solutions, 5, 1-11.

Orozco-Messana, J. (2020). Sustainable Higher Education Development Through Technology Enhanced Learning. Sustainability, 12 (9), 3600.

Pabbajah, M., Abdullah, I., Widyanti, R. N., Jubba, H., & Alim, N. (2020). Student Demoralization in Education: The Industrialization of University Curriculum In 4.0. Era Indonesia. Cogent Education, 7(1), 1779506.

Phiri, K., Ndlovu, S., Dube, T., Nyathi, D., Ncube, C., & Tshuma, N. (2020). Access to Formal Education for The San Community In Tsholotsho, Zimbabwe: Challenges And Prospects. Heliyon, 6(7), E04470.

Purwanto, A. (2020). University Students Online Learning System during Covid-19 Pandemic: Advantages, Constraints and Solutions. Sys Rev Pharm, 11(7), 570-576.

Qi, D., & Wu, Y. (2020). Family’s Social Economic Status and Child Educational Outcomes in China: The Mediating Effects of Parenting Practices and Children’s Learning Attitudes. Children and Youth Services Review, 118, 105387.

Reay, D. (2009). Sociology, Social Class and Education. In The Routledge International Handbook of The Sociology Of Education (Pp. 414-422). Routledge.

Sahlberg, P. (2021). Does The Pandemic Help Us Make Education More Equitable? Educational Research for Policy and Practice, 20, 11-18.

Sailer, M., Schultz-Pernice, F., & Fischer, F. (2021). Contextual Facilitators for Learning Activities Involving Technology in Higher Education: The C♭-Model. Computers in Human Behavior, 121, 106794.

Tareen, H., & Haand, M. T. (2020). A Case Study of Uitm Post-Graduate Students’ Perceptions On Online Learning: Benefits & Challenges. International Journal of Advanced Research and Publications, 4(6), 86-94.

Unger, S., & Meiran, W. R. (2020). Student Attitudes towards Online Education during The COVID-19 Viral Outbreak Of 2020: Distance Learning In A Time Of Social Distance. International Journal of Technology in Education and Science, 4(4), 256-266.

Volchik, V., Zhuk, A., Oganesyan, A., & Abrhám, J. (2019). Analysis of The Institutional Building And Sustainable Development of Higher Education In Transition Economies. Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues, 7(2), 1413.

Weisbrot, D. M., & Ryst, E. (2020). Debate: Student Mental Health Matters–The Heightened Need for School‐Based Mental Health In The Era Of COVID‐19. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 25(4), 258-259.

Yang, D., Swekwi, U., Tu, C. C., & Dai, X. (2020). Psychological Effects of The COVID-19 Pandemic on Wuhan’s High School Students. Children and Youth Services Review, 119, 105634.

Yarish, O., Kichuk, Y., Kunchenko-Kharchenko, V., & Hrushchynska, N. (2021). Intellectual Capital of Institutions of Higher Education in The Knowledge Economy.

Article View

Abstract views : 409 times | PDF files viewed : 145 times

Dimensions, PlumX, and Google Scholar Metrics



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Sulistyorini

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Al-Tanzim : Jurnal Manajemen Pendidikan Islam
Published by Islamic Faculty of Nurul Jadid University, Probolinggo, East Java, Indonesia.