KRITIK HADITS BERBASIS USHUL FIQHIYAH: REPOSISI SUNNAH DALAM DISKURSUS (HUKUM) ISLAM KONTEMPORER

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33650/edureligia.v1i2.743

Authors (s)


(1) * Faizin Faizin   (Fakultas Tarbiyah Institut Agama Islam Nurul Jadid, Indonesia)  
        Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


This article is aimed to figure out the significant position of Hadits in the midst of contemporary discourse of Islamic legal theory in general, or in Ushul Fiqh in specific, on which Al-Quran and Sunnah were based for law determination. In the history of Islamic development, there have been two major models of evaluation of Hadits, either by Muhaddits or by Ushuliyyun, which unfortunately offered no systematic methodology pertaining to make a clear of the position, of the function, and of the epistemological value of Hadits in legal theory (also in theological, philosophical, mystical fields of knowlede). This study attempts to (re)conceptualize a scope of Al-Quran and Sunnah in the pre-classical Islamic period, which notably characterized an important hermeneutic relationship between both of them, and to make critical questions of classical Muhaddits’ and Ushuliyyun’s methodologies, which focused merely on ‘normative’ issues of isnad and mutawatir, contributing to the negation of primordial-hermeneutic relationship Al-Quran and Sunnah and to the hypothetic assumption that the only objective of Hadits was to concern with textual authenticity (shahih) or narrators’ knowledge (mutawatir). By offering a new methodology which makes a question of both models of evaluation and provides a historical retention of hermeneutic relationship between Al-Quran and Sunnah, this article was considerably to build an ethic-religious synthesis between Ulumul Hadits and Ushul Fiqh.


Keywords

Al-Quran,Sunnah, Hadist, Ushul Fiqh



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References


Rahman, “Living Sunnah”, Arab Law Quarterly, (Vol. 30, No. 2, tahun 2007), hlm. 56; bdk. Duderija, “A Paradigm Shift,” hlm. 200.

Ibid.

A.M. Emon, “Towards A Natural Law Theory in Islamic Law: Muslim Juristic Debates on Reasons as A Source of Obligation”, JINEl, (Vol. 3, No. 1, 2003), hlm. 1-51.

Deskripsi tentang contoh-contoh penerapan Sunnah ini bisa dibaca W. Hallaq, The Origins and Evolution of Islamic Law, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), hlm. 86-91.

Tentu saja, pengecualian untuk Imam Al-Ghazali, Imam Asy-Syathibi, dan Imam Tusi, ketiga pakar yang juga berusaha mengakomodir Hadits berbasis hukum maqasid meski dengan metodologi yang berbeda satu sama lain. Tetapi, mereka pun hidup puluhan abad setelah fondasi dasari teori Ushul Fiqh sudah terbangun, sehingga membuatnya tetap marginal. Lihat Duderija, “A Paradigm Shift,” hlm. 201.

Sunnah Ubudiyah berkaitan dengan ritual-ritual Islam, seperti shalat, haji, adzan, dan sejenisnya, sementara Sunnah ‘Amaliyah lebih berhubungan dengan praktik-praktik umat Muslim yang jauh lebih luas, seperti transaksi antarwarga, yang bisa dicari relasinya dengan praktik (pada zaman) Nabi Muhammad. Lihat penjelasannya dalam Dutton, Yasin: The Origins of Islamic Law, (London: Routledge and Curzon, 2002), hlm. 56.

Model pendekatan semacam ini sebenarnya sudah dikembangkan oleh para sarjana Muslim kenamaan, sebutlah beberapa, misalnya Kh. Abou Eld-Fadl, Speaking in God’s Name: Islamic Law, Authority and Women, (UK: Oxford University Press, 2003); Amina Wadud, Quran and Woman: Rereading the Sacred Text from a Woman’s Perspective, (UK: Oxford University Press, 1999); A. Saeed, Interpreting the Quran, Towards A Contemporary Approach, (London: Routledge, 2006); Nasser Abu Zayd, Re-thinking Al-Quran, Towards A Humanistic Hermeneutics, (London: Humanities University Press, 2004); Fazlur Rahman, Islam and Modernity: The Transformation of An Intellectual Tradition, (UK: Chicago University Press, 1982); Hassan Hanafi, Islam in Modern World, (Vol. II, Cairo, 2000); A. Barlas, Believing Women in Islam: Unreading Patriarchal Interpretations of the Quran, (UK: Austin, 2002). Akan tetapi, tidak ada satu pun dari pakar tersebut yang berusaha menyingkap problem epistemologis dari relasi Al-Quran dan Hadits, yang sering tumpang tindih dengan Sunnah, dan bagaimana ketiganya bekerja dalam ranah teori hukum Islam seperti Ushul Fiqh.

Lihat Yudian Wahyudi, The Slogan “Back to the Quran and Sunnah”: A Comparative Study of Responses of Hasan Hanafi, Muhammad Abid Al-Jabiri, and Nurcholish Madjid, Thesis, (Canada: McGill University, 2002).


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