COVID-19 MISINFORMATION: HOW DOES SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION LITERACY PREVENT IT?

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33650/pjp.v8i1.2167

Authors (s)


(1)  Muhammad Retsa Rizaldi Mujayapura   (Indonesian Education University, Bandung)  
        Indonesia
(2)  Karim Suryadi   (Indonesian Education University, Bandung)  
        Indonesia
(3) * Sardin Sardin   (Indonesian Education University, Bandung)  
        Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


This article aims to examine the importance of information literacy and scientific literacy skills to prevent exposure to misinformation in the midst of the Covid-19 pandemic. Believing in misinformation encourages behaviour that is detrimental to individuals and groups due to anxiety, fear, uncertainty, and a lack of critical thinking skills. This study uses a qualitative approach with a systematic literature review (SLR) method. Through the SLR method, this article uses various sources of empirical research by collecting data and information to analyze elements in information literacy and scientific literacy that can identify misinformation. Information literacy is considered to be more useful in preventing belief in misinformation compared to the concepts of digital literacy, media literacy, and news literacy. Information literacy skills with information verification, and supported by scientific literacy with intellectual virtue, can recognize misinformation about COVID-19 so that it can prevent individuals from believing in misinformation that can result in errors of action. Scientific information literacy needs practical intervention to the public, one of which is through the role of educational institutions.


Keywords

COVID-19 Misinformation, Information Literacy, Scientific Literacy



Full Text: PDF



References


Allcott, H., & Gentzkow, M. (2017). Social media and fake news in the 2016 election. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 31(2), 211–236. https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.31.2.211

Bali, M. M. E. I. (2017). Model Interaksi Sosial dalam Mengelaborasi Keterampilan Sosial. Jurnal Pedagogik, 4(2), 211–227. https://ejournal.unuja.ac.id/index.php/pedagogik/article/view/19

Bali, M. M. E. I., & Hajriyah, H. B. (2020). Modernisasi Pendidikan Agama Islam di Era Revolusi Industri 4.0. MOMENTUM: Jurnal Sosial Dan Keagamaan, 9(1), 42–62. https://doi.org/10.14421/jpai.2019.161-01

Bali, M. M. E. I., & Musrifah. (2020). The Problems of Application of Online Learning in the Affective and Psychomotor Domains During the Covid-19 Pandemic. Jurnal Pendidikan Agama Islam, 17(2), 137–154. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.14421/jpai.2020.172-03

Bali, M. M. E. I., & Ruzifah, D. (2021). Mitigation of Student Deviant Behaviour through Al-Ghazali’s Perspective Spiritual Values in the Disruptive Era. Jurnal Pendidikan Progresif, 11(1), 63–76. https://doi.org/10.23960/jpp.v11.i1.20210

Brennen, J. S., Simon, F. M., Howard, P. N., & Nielsen, R. K. (2020). Types, Sources, and Claims of COVID-19 Misinformation. Oxford University Press, April, 1–13.

Bronstein, M. V., Pennycook, G., Bear, A., Rand, D. G., & Cannon, T. D. (2019). Belief in Fake News is Associated with Delusionality, Dogmatism, Religious Fundamentalism, and Reduced Analytic Thinking. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 8(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jarmac.2018.09.005

Carlson, M. (2018). Fake news as an informational moral panic : the symbolic deviancy of social media during the 2016 US presidential election. Information, Communication & Society, 0(0), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2018.1505934

Cassese, E., Farhart, C., & Miller, J. (2020). Gender Differences in COVID-19 Conspiracy Theory Beliefs. Politics & Gender, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1743923X20000409

Chen, X., Sin, S. J., Theng, Y., & Lee, C. S. (2015). Why Students Share Misinformation on Social Media: Motivation, Gender, and Study-level Differences. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 41, 583–592. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acalib.2015.07.003

Del Vicario, M., Bessi, A., Zollo, F., Petroni, F., Scala, A., Caldarelli, G., Stanley, H. E., & Quattrociocchi, W. (2015). Echo chambers in the age of misinformation. ArXiv Preprint ArXiv, 1–7.

Dragoş, V., & Mih, V. (2015). Scientific Literacy in School. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 209, 167–172. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.11.273

Freckelton QC, I. (2020). COVID-19: Fear, quackery, false representations and the law. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 72, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijlp.2020.101611

Georgiou, N., Delfabbro, P., & Balzan, R. (2020). COVID-19-related conspiracy beliefs and their relationship with perceived stress and pre-existing conspiracy beliefs. Personality and Individual Differences, 166(June), 110201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2020.110201

Green, R., & Douglas, K. M. (2018). Anxious attachment and belief in conspiracy theories. Personality and Individual Differences, 125(December 2017), 30–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.12.023

Hurd, P. D. (1998). Scientific literacy: New minds for a changing world. Science Education, 82(3), 407–416. https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1098-237x(199806)82:3<407::aid-sce6>3.3.co;2-q

Ilahi, H. N. (2019). Women and Hoax News Processing on WhatsApp. Jurnal Ilmu Sosial Dan Ilmu Politik, 22(2), 98. https://doi.org/10.22146/jsp.31865

Jatmiko, M. I. (2019). Post-Truth, Media Sosial, Dan Misinformasi: Pergolakan Wacana Politik Pemilihan Presiden Indonesia Tahun 2019. Jurnal Dakwah Tabligh, 20(1), 21. https://doi.org/10.24252/jdt.v20i1.9529

Johnson-Schlee, S. (2019). Playing cards against the state: Precarious lives, conspiracy theories, and the production of ‘irrational’ subjects. Geoforum, 101(February 2018), 174–181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2019.02.013

Jones-Jang, S. M., Mortensen, T., & Liu, J. (2021). Does Media Literacy Help Identification of Fake News? Information Literacy Helps, but Other Literacies Don’t. American Behavioral Scientist, 65(2), 371–388. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764219869406

Khan, M. L., & Idris, I. K. (2019). Recognise misinformation and verify before sharing : a reasoned action and information literacy perspective. Behaviour & Information Technology, 0(0), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1080/0144929X.2019.1578828

Laato, S., Islam, A. K. M. N., Islam, M. N., & Whelan, E. (2020). What drives unverified information sharing and cyberchondria during the COVID-19 pandemic? European Journal of Information Systems, 29(3), 288–305. https://doi.org/10.1080/0960085X.2020.1770632

Laugksch, R. C. (2000). Achieving Wider Scientific Literacy. John Wiley & Sons, 84, 71–94.

Lewandowsky, S., Ecker, U. K. H., & Cook, J. (2017). Beyond Misinformation: Understanding and Coping with the “Post-Truth” Era. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 6(4), 353–369. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jarmac.2017.07.008

Lewandowsky, S., Ecker, U. K. H., Seifert, C. M., Schwarz, N., & Cook, J. (2012). Misinformation and Its Correction: Continued Influence and Successful Debiasing. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, Supplement, 13(3), 106–131. https://doi.org/10.1177/1529100612451018

Lumowa, V. (2019). Politik Post-Truth (Pascakebenaran) sebagai Tantangan Kebenaran. Jurnal Majelis, 10, 47–68.

Madalina, C. (2015). Globalization and the Conspiracy Theory. Procedia Economics and Finance, 23(October 2014), 677–681. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2212-5671(15)00474-8

Mancosu, M., Vassallo, S., & Vezzoni, C. (2017). Believing in Conspiracy Theories: Evidence from an Exploratory Analysis of Italian Survey Data. South European Society and Politics, 22(3), 327–344. https://doi.org/10.1080/13608746.2017.1359894

Mason, L. E., Krutka, D., & Stoddard, J. (2018). Media Literacy, Democracy, and the Challenge of Fake News. Journal of Media Literacy Education, 10(2), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.23860/jmle-2018-10-2-1

Miller, J. M. (2020). Do COVID-19 Conspiracy Theory Beliefs form a Monological Belief System? Canadian Journal of Political Science, 53, 319–326. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0008423920000517

Montgomery, M. (2017). Post-truth politics? Journal of Language and Politics, 16(4), 619–639. https://doi.org/10.1075/jlp.17023.mon

Muali, C., Islam, S., Bali, M. M. E. I., Hefniy, H., Baharun, H., Mundiri, A., Jasri, M., & Fauzi, A. (2018). Free Online Learning Based on Rich Internet Applications; The Experimentation of Critical Thinking about Student Learning Style. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1114(1), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1114/1/012024

Nasir, N. M., Baequni, B., & Nurmansyah, M. I. (2020). Misinformation Related To Covid-19 in Indonesia. Jurnal Administrasi Kesehatan Indonesia, 8(2), 51. https://doi.org/10.20473/jaki.v8i2.2020.51-59

Pennycook, G., & Rand, D. G. (2019a). Lazy, not biassed: Susceptibility to partisan fake news is better explained by lack of reasoning than by motivated reasoning. Cognition, 188(September 2017), 39–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.06.011

Pennycook, G., & Rand, D. G. (2019b). Who falls for fake news? The roles of bullshit receptivity, overclaiming, familiarity, and analytic thinking. Journal of Personality, 1(16), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12476

Pereira, A., & Van Bavel, J. J. (2019). Identity concerns drive belief in fake news. Preprint. https://doi.org/10.31234/OSF.IO/7VC5D

Rider, S., & Peters, M. A. (2018). Post-truth, Fake News : Viral Modernity and Higher Education Introduction : The Deep Cultural Roots of Truth. Post-Truth, Fake News, 3–12.

Rozi, F., Bali, M. M. E. I., Firdaus, S., Wijaya, M., Mursyidi, R. A. Al, Haqiki, M. W., & Abidin, Z. (2020). Learning Management; Identifying Learning Styles of Language Learners in Madrasah. Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, 5(August), 3783–3790.

Sallam, M., Dababseh, D., Yaseen, A., Al-Haidar, A., Ababneh, N. A., Bakri, F. G., & Mahafzah, A. (2020). Conspiracy beliefs are associated with lower knowledge and higher anxiety levels regarding covid-19 among students at the university of Jordan. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(14), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17144915

Shahsavari, S., Holur, P., Tangherlini, T. R., & Roychowdhury, V. (2020). Conspiracy in the Time of Corona: Automatic detection of Covid-19 Conspiracy Theories in Social Media and the News. 1–21.

Sharon, A. J., & Tsabari, A. B. (2020). Can science literacy help individuals identify misinformation in everyday life ? Science Education, April, 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.21581

Sismondo, S. (2017). Post-truth? Social Studies of Science, 47(1), 3–6. https://doi.org/10.1177/0306312717692076

Swire-Thompson, B., & Lazer, D. (2019). Public health and online misinformation: Challenges and recommendations. Annual Review of Public Health, 41, 433–451. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094127

Tasnim, S., Hossain, M. M., & Mazumder, H. (2020). Impact of rumours or misinformation on coronavirus disease ( COVID-19 ) in social media Coronavirus disease ( COVID-19 ) and flow of ( mis ) information in social media. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.31235/osf.io/uf3znhttps://doi.org/10.31235/osf.io/uf3zn

Ulya. (2018). Post-Truth, Hoax, dan Religiusitas di Media Sosial. In Fikrah (Vol. 6, Issue 2, p. 283). https://doi.org/10.21043/fikrah.v6i2.4070

Uscinski, J. E., Klofstad, C., & Atkinson, M. D. (2016). What Drives Conspiratorial Beliefs ? The Role of Informational Cues and Predispositions. Political Research Quarterly, 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1177/1065912915621621

van Prooijen, J. W. (2017). Why Education Predicts Decreased Belief in Conspiracy Theories. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 31(1), 50–58. https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.3301

Vraga, E. K., Tully, M., & Bode, L. (2020). Empowering users to respond to misinformation about covid-19. In Media and Communication (Vol. 8, Issue 2, pp. 475–479). Cogitatio Press. https://doi.org/10.17645/mac.v8i2.3200

Wahid, A. H., Najiburrahman, Rahman, K., Faiz, Qodriyah, K., Hambali, Bali, M. M. E. I., Baharun, H., & Muali, C. (2020). Effectiveness of Android-Based Mathematics Learning Media Application on Student Learning Achievement. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1594/1/012047


Article View

Abstract views : 478 times | PDF files viewed : 446 times

Dimensions, PlumX, and Google Scholar Metrics

10.33650/pjp.v8i1.2167


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 Muhammad Retsa Rizaldi Mujayapura


This work is licensed under a CC BY-SA

Published by Islamic Faculty of Nurul Jadid University, Probolinggo, East Java, Indonesia.